EXPERIMENT 3:ENERGY LOSS IN PIPE AND FITTINGS

TITLE

Experiment 3: Energy loss in Pipe and Fitting

INTRODUCTION

In this experiment, it’s all about head losses in pipe flow. Energy head losses will always occur in pipe flow due to the skin friction on the pipe wall. Additional energy head losses occur in pipe flow due to the disturbances to pipe flow streamlines triggered by valves and such pipe fittings as bends, sudden expansions and contractions.

OBJECTIVE

The objectives of this experiment are:

1. To determine the loss of head due to friction in incompressible flow in a horizontal pipe.

2. To determine the friction factor of a pipe

3. To determine the loss of head in sudden expansion and sudden contraction of pipes

4. To determine the loss coefficients in sudden expansion and sudden contraction pipes

5. To compare the losses of energy (head losses) in different configuration of pipes

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

PIPE SPECIFICATION

1. PVC 20 X 1.5 pipe:

a. Pipe inside diameter, d=17mm

b. Wall roughness, k=0.001mm

2. PVC 23 x 1.8 pipe:

a. Pipe inside diameter, d=28.4mm

b. Wall roughness, k=0.001mm

3. Measurement length of the pipe for part A, L=800mm.

PART A: LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO FRICTION IN PVC 20 X 1.5 PIPE

1. Temperature of the room was recorded.

2. The length and inside diameter of the pipe were recorded.

3. All valves were closed except those that will let the water flow from the tank to pipe B and return back to the tank. The direction of the flow in the pipe was verified.

4. Manometer hoses were connected to the pressure tapping points if the pipe.

5. The pump was switched on. Air bubbles were removed from the apparatus.

6. The valve on the left side of the pipe was adjusted in order to have the difference of manometer level ( of 10mm. The value of and were recorded.

7. The volume flow rate (Q) was measured and recorded.

8. Step 6 and 7 were repeated for the difference of manometer level ( of 20mm, 40mm, 80mm, 120mm, 160mm and 230mm.

PART B: LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN EXPANSION FROM PVC 20 X 1.5 TO PVC 32 X 1.8 PIPES

1. Inside diameter of the pipes were recorded.

2. All valves were closed except those that will let the water flows from the tank to pipe A and return back to the tank. The direction of flow in the pipe was verified.

3. The pressure tapping point of the sudden expansion pipe was connected to the left manometer while the pressure tapping point of the sudden contraction pipe was connected to the right manometer.

4. The pump was switched on. Air bubbles were removed from the apparatus.

5. The valve on the left side of the sudden expansion pipe was adjusted to a certain position.

6. The value of and were measured and recorded.

7. The volume flow rate (Q) was measured and recorded.

8. Step 5 to 7 was repeated for 5 values of Q.

PART C: LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN CONTRACTION FROM PVC 32 X 1.8 TO PVC 20 X 1.5 PIPES

1. Inside diameter of the pipes were recorded.

2. All valves were closed except those that will let the water flows from the tank to pipe A and return back to the tank. The direction of flow in the pipe was verified.

3. The pressure tapping point of the sudden expansion pipe was connected to the left manometer while the pressure tapping point of the sudden contraction pipe was connected to the right manometer.

4. The pump was switched on. Air bubbles were removed from the apparatus.

5. The valve on the left side of the sudden expansion pipe was adjusted to a certain position.

6. The value of and were measured and recorded.

7. The volume flow rate (Q) was measured and recorded.

8. Step 5 to 7 was repeated for 5 values of Q.

DATA AND CALCULATION

PART A: LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO FRICTION IN PVC 20 X 1.5 PIPE

Pipe length

L=800mm=0.8m

Pipe inside diameter

d=17mm=0.017m

Pipe cross-sectional area

A=2.27x

(a)

(b)

(a)/(b)

equation 5

( c )

(d)

equation 1

(e)

Measurement

No

Volume measured

Time observed

Q

v

h1

h2

hf

v2

(liters)

(s)

(liters/s)

(m3/s)

(m/s)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(m)

(m2/s2)

1

5

62.47

0.0800

0.00008

0.352

377

367

10

0.01

0.124

2

5

38.38

0.1303

0.00013

0.573

386

366

20

0.02

0.328

3

5

25.53

0.1958

0.00020

0.881

406

366

40

0.04

0.776

4

5

17.62

0.2838

0.00028

1.233

445

365

80

0.08

1.521

5

5

14.31

0.3494

0.00035

1.542

485

365

120

0.12

2.377

6

5

12.69

0.3940

0.00039

1.718

520

360

160

0.16

2.952

7

5

10.56

0.4735

0.00047

2.070

590

360

230

0.23

4.287

PART B: LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN EXPANSION FROM PVC 20 X 1.5 TO PVC 32 X 1.8 PIPES

Upstream pipe inside diameter

Upstream pipe cross-sectional area

Downstream pipe inside diameter

Downstream pipe cross-sectional area

(a)

(b)

(a)/(b)

eq 5

eq 5

( c )

(d)

(e)

(f)

equation 4

Measurement

No

Volume measured

Time observed

Q

v1

v2

v12/(2g)

v22/(2g)

h1

h2

hl

(liters)

(s)

(liters/s)

(m3/s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m)

(m)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(m)

1

5

33.91

0.1474

0.00015

0.661

0.237

0.022

0.003

400

385

34.393

0.034

2

5

20.50

0.2439

0.00024

1.057

0.379

0.057

0.007

440

395

94.647

0.095

3

5

14.82

0.3374

0.00034

1.498

0.537

0.114

0.015

480

405

174.638

0.175

4

5

11.97

0.4177

0.00042

1.850

0.664

0.174

0.022

520

415

257.042

0.257

5

5

10.94

0.4570

0.00046

2.026

0.727

0.209

0.027

560

425

317.382

0.317

PART C: LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN CONTRACTION FROM PVC 32 X 1.8 TO PVC 20 X 1.5 PIPES

Upstream pipe inside diameter

Upstream pipe cross-sectional area

Downstream pipe inside diameter

Downstream pipe cross-sectional area

(a)

(b)

(a)/(b)

eq 5

eq 5

( c )

(d)

(e)

(f)

equation 4

Measurement

No

Volume measured

Time observed

Q

v1

v2

v12/(2g)

v22/(2g)

h1

h2

hl

(liters)

(s)

(liters/s)

(m3/s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m)

(m)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(m)

1

5

35.03

0.1427

0.00014

0.221

0.617

0.002

0.019

400

365

18.086

0.018

2

5

18.41

0.2716

0.00027

0.427

1.189

0.009

0.072

475

335

77.238

0.077

3

5

13.59

0.3679

0.00037

0.585

1.63

0.017

0.135

550

305

127.025

0.127

4

5

12.28

0.4072

0.00041

0.648

1.806

0.021

0.166

625

270

210.161

0.210

5

5

10.50

0.4762

0.00048

0.758

2.115

0.029

0.228

700

235

266.291

0.266

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the experiment that have been carried out were successful, even though the data collected are a little bit difference compared to the theoretical value. The difference between the theoretical value and the actual value may mainly due to human and servicing factors such as parallax error. This error occur during observer captured the value of the water level, and . Besides that, it also may because there is bubble inside the pipe line. This is because the bubble was not properly flushed during bleeding. There is no other relative motion between the fluid particles. There is only stress that will be a normal stress which is equal to the pressure. There are a lot of possibilities for the experiment will having an error. Therefore, the recommendation to overcome the error is ensure that the position of the observer’s eye must be 90° perpendicular to the reading. Other than that, ensure that the bubble was fully removed from the pipe line.

REFERENCE

Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Yunus A.Cengel and John M.Cimbala

5 Response to "EXPERIMENT 3:ENERGY LOSS IN PIPE AND FITTINGS"

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  2. Anonymous Says:
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  3. Anonymous Says:
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